Culti rurali e culti urbani nella Bitinia ellenistica e romana

  • Ferdinando Ferraioli Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”

Resumen

Scopo di questo intervento è esaminare le principali testimonianze sulla diffusione dei culti in ambito rurale ed urbano nella Bitinia ellenistica e romana. Il dossier epi­grafico appare più limitato per il periodo ellenistico, mentre è più ampio per quello romano. Nelle aree urbane e nelle aree rura­li appaiono diffuse le principali divinità del pantheon cultuale greco come Zeus, Apollo, Artemide, Atena, Asclepio ed altre; è signi­ficativo come tali divinità nelle aree rurali appaiano con epiteti locali di origine indi­gena. Particolarmente interessante il caso di Zeus a cui sono associati epiteti come Ba­leos e Okkonenos, che appaiono di origine tracia, e come Sabazios, che è probabilmen­te di origine frigia. Altri culti probabilmen­te basati sulla commistione tra elemento greco e elementi non-greci erano quello della Grande Madre Cibele, che aveva un tempio dedicato a Nicomedia, e alcuni culti tipicamente locali come Priettos, Tataula, Proustene e i Theoi Nerolenoi. In ambito urbano possono ritrovarsi invece culti mag­giormente legati alle influenze esterne come quelle egiziane. Ciò appare soprattutto nelle città costiere come Kios, Apamea e Nico­media, che già in età ellenistica sono aperte ai culti di Iside e Serapide. Più limitato e in epoca più tarda appare l’influsso della reli­gione romana, testimoniato dalle rare dedi­che bilingui e dall’attestazione dei riti fune­rari dei Rosalia. Il rapporto tra culti rurali e culti urbani appare contraddistinto quindi da alcune differenze, con le aree rurali che appaiono almeno in un primo tempo meno disponibili ad accogliere i culti stranieri e maggiormente legate ai culti indigeni, che vengono uniti a quelli per le principali divi­nità del pantheon ellenico. Alla fine tuttavia anche in Bitinia quindi, come è stato notato per altre zone dell’Asia Minore, si assiste, con il passaggio tra l’età ellenistica e quella romana, ad un processo di progressiva in­tegrazione tra culti urbani e rurali, che si attua probabilmente in maniera prevalente­mente armonica e senza grosse tensioni tra le varie componenti etniche e territoriali.

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Publicado
2021-11-12
Cómo citar
Ferraioli, F. (2021). Culti rurali e culti urbani nella Bitinia ellenistica e romana. ARYS. Antigüedad: Religiones Y Sociedades, (19), 97-129. https://doi.org/10.20318/arys.2021.5927
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Monográfico